Just finished completing policies for developing countries with my A2 class and invariably with all my economics classes you cannot get away with not talking about the war in Ukraine and the inflationary problems that the global economy is experiencing. The increase in food and and fuel prices hits the developing world the most and could not have come at a worse time as economies around the world are starting to open up after the COVID pandemic. For the developing world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) there is a significant erosion in living standards and macroeconomic imbalances – see graph below. The IMF has identified 3 main areas that the war is impacting countries:
- In SSA food accounts for 40% of consumer spending with 85% of wheat supplies being imported. Add to that higher prices for fuel and fertiliser.
- Higher oil prices mean adds $19bn to the regions imports which worsen the current account balance. However the eight petroleum exporting countries do benefit.
- SSA countries are not well placed to cope with the need for increased government spending which means using more tax revenue. Increasing oil prices have a direct fiscal cost through fuel subsidies and rising interest rates globally make it more expensive to borrow money to keep the economy ‘above water’ let alone for actual development.
Sign up to elearneconomics for multiple choice test questions (many with coloured diagrams and models) and the reasoned answers on inflation. Immediate feedback and tracked results allow students to identify areas of strength and weakness vital for student-centred learning and understanding.