In doing most introductory courses in economics you will have come across the four functions of money which are:
- Medium of exchange
- Unit of Account
- Store of Value
- Means of deferred payment
Since the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944 the US dollar was nominated as the world’s reserve currency and ranks highly compared to other currencies in the above functions. As a medium of exchange the US dollar is very prevalent:
- 60% of the world’s currency reserves are in US dollars
- 50% of cross-border interbank claims
- After the GFC, purchases of the US dollar increased significantly – store of value.
- Around 90% of forex trading involves the US dollar
- Approximately 40% of the world’s debt is issued in dollars
- n 2018 banks of Germany, France, and the UK held more liabilities in US dollars than in their own domestic currencies.
So why therefore is there pressure on the US dollar as the reserve currency?
The COVID-19 pandemic has closed borders and will inevitably lead to more regionalised trade, migration and money flows which suggests a greater use of local currencies. However China has made its intention clear that the Yuan should become a more universal currency. Some interesting facts:
- Deposits in yuan = 1trn yuan = US$144bn
- Yuan transactions have grown in Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong and London.
- Investment by Chinese firms into Belt and Road project = US$3.75bn which was in yuan
- China settles 15% of its foreign trade in yuan
- France settles 20% of its trade with China in yuan
- 2018 – Shanghai sock market launched yuan-denominated oil futures.
- The IMF suggest that the ‘yuan bloc’ accounts for 30% of Global GDP – the US$ = 40%
However if the past is anything to go by the US economy has gone through some very turbulent times but the US dollar has remained firm. This suggests that how we perceive the US economy doesn’t seem to relate to the value of its currency.
Source: The Economist – China wants to make the yuan a central-bank favourite
7th May 2020