Lower income extroverts spend more on status enhancing goods

October 2, 2017 Leave a comment

People who are ‘extraverted’ and on low incomes buy more luxury goods than their introverted peers to compensate for the experience of low financial status, finds new UCL research. In Psychological Science, Dr Landis and Dr Gladstone analyse a year of data from more than 700 British bank accounts in 2014. They sort purchases into categories, ranging from high-status (foreign air travel, electronic goods and so on) to low-status (money spent at salvage yards and discount stores). They then correlate the results with those from personality tests taken by the account-holders.

People living on a low income often feel low status in society and spend a higher percentage of their money on goods and services that are perceived to have a high status. Previous research has found that people who are sociable and outgoing care more about their social status than others. The new research shows that when extraverted people have a lower income, they spend proportionately more on status goods than introverts on the same income. At higher incomes, the difference in spending lessens as introverted people buy more luxury goods.

The study analysed thousands of transactions from 718 customers over 12 months. The results took into account other factors that could influence spending habits, such as age, sex, employment status and whether the customers had children. Cash spending was also taken into account.

low income conspicuous cons.pngEach person’s spending data were sorted into a number of spending categories from one (very low status) to five (very high status). High-status categories (i.e., those with average scores of four or five) included foreign air travel, golf, electronics and art institutions, whereas low-status categories (i.e., those with average scores of two or one) included pawnbrokers, salvage yards and discount stores.

The team found the interaction between income and extraversion in predicting spending on luxury goods is significant and emphasize that while this useful in understanding the relationship, further research is needed to see whether the relationship is causal and whether the results are representative of the UK population as a whole.

The study found, though, that the gap widened with poverty.

  • Extroverts with an annual income of £10,850 the 25th percentile of British individual incomes in 2014, spent approximately 65% more on high-status goods than similarly remunerated introverts did.
  • Extroverts with an annual income of £28,470 the 75th percentile, they spent only 14% more. This suggests how keenly extroverts feel about keeping up appearances.


  • The Economist “Poor extroverts spend proportionately more on buying status” 26th August 2017
  • UCL – Personality drives purchasing of luxury goods – 23rd August 2017

Where is inflation?

September 29, 2017 Leave a comment

Since the GFC in 2007/8 the developed economies have been awash with stimulatory forces including quantitative easing, record low interest rates and increased government spending. This has led to accelerating growth levels driven by an increase in Aggregate Demand – C+I+G+(X-M). Business and consumer confidence has also increased and this has come about by the decline in financial and economic risk.

Supply ShockSo you would assume with stronger aggregate demand that the capacity constraints in the supply of goods and services accompanied by shortages in the labour market would lead to inflationary pressure. Yet in some countries core inflation has actually fallen and this creates a dilemma for central banks as although there is growth in their economy the inflation rate is below their target band. A reason for this could the supply side shocks (Aggregate Supply to the right – see graph). The following maybe the cause:

  • Globalization keeps cheap goods and services flowing from China and other emerging markets.
  • Weaker trade unions and workers’ reduced bargaining power have flattened out the Phillips curve (see below), with low structural unemployment producing little wage inflation.
  • Oil and commodity prices are low or declining.
  • And technological innovations, starting with a new Internet revolution, are reducing the costs of goods and services.

NZ Phillips Curve

Sources: Project Syndicate, Economicsonline.co.uk

Two Cows explain economics

September 29, 2017 Leave a comment
The best way to describe different economic systems is with cows. It keeps it simple and easy to understand – from NewstalkZB – you can view them all here.
Irish Cow

Greek Cow.jpegVenture Cow.jpeg

A2 Revision – Monopoly and Deadweight Loss

September 26, 2017 Leave a comment

A topic in the A2 syllabus is Market Failure with special emphasis on Monopoly and Deadweight Loss.

In Perfect Competition we stated that the force of supply and demand establish an equilibrium situation in which resources are used most efficiently – MC (Supply) = AR(Demand) . Furthermore, in perfect competition the firm produces at MC = MR (profit max) which is also the same as producing at MC = AR (allocative efficiency). This is because AR and MR are the same in perfect competition. Therefore the same output represents allocative efficiency and profit max. Remember that long-run Perfect Competition is a significant output as it is where:
MC = MR – Maximum Profit or Minimum Loss
MC = AR – Allocative Efficiency (Supply = Demand)
AC = MC – Technical Optimum – Productive Efficiency

However for a monopolist because the AR and the MR curves are different we get separate outputs for Allocative Efficiency and Profit Max. The graph below shows that at profit maximising equilibrium, output Q2 is less than that in a competitive market (Q1), and the demand and supply (MC) curves do not intersect. Q1 represents the Allocative Efficiency level of output and P1 the price. The shaded area therefore represents the loss of allocative efficiency or the deadweight loss.

A2 Revision – Marginal Utility Theory

September 25, 2017 Leave a comment

With the A2 exam not far away I thought it appropriate to post something on Marginal Utility. This is usually a multiple-choice question and part of an essay.

Consumers buy goods to derive satisfaction, or utility. Each unit purchased gives satisfaction (utility) and Marginal Utility is the satisfaction derived from the consumption of 1 more unit. Under normal circumstances the amount of satisfaction from each unit consumed will fall as more units are consumed e.g. when you finish a run your first drink will give you more satisfaction than your second and your second drink will give you more satisfaction than your third etc. – hence we get diminishing marginal utility see Table below. This is the basis of the normal demand curve, which slopes left to right – downwards.

The theory assumes that the RATIONAL CONSUMER aims to MAXIMISE SATISFACTION (or utility) by equating the MARGINAL UTILITIES yielded by the expenditure of a last money unit (cent or dollar) on each commodity purchased. The consumer is this is EQUILIBRIUM when the following formula is achieved:

  • MU of A   =     MU of B    =     MU of C       Etc.
  • Price of A       Price of B        Price of C

This means that the LAST unit of money spent provides the consumer with the same SATISFACTION (or UTILITY) irrespective of the good on which it is spent.


A consumer has $35 to spend. Price of X = $10 and Price Y = $5. What combination of X and Y maximize total satisfaction?

Quantity Bought Marginal Utility X Marginal Utility Y
1 30 15
2 20 12
3 15 10
4 9 8


  • MU of X   =     MU of Y
  • Price of X       Price of Y
  • 20   =   10
  • 10         5

Here the consumer buys 2X and 3Y

TOTAL UTILITY in this example = 30+20+15+12+10 = 87. (Note that TOTAL UTILITY is otherwise irrelevant to the calculation).

When the PRICE of a good falls, more will be bought (since the M.U. ÷ price formula is disturbed – and a LOWER M.U. {i.e. MORE BOUGHT} will restore equilibrium). Similarly, when the price of a good RISES less will be bought. This emerges from the LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL UTILITY which states that as successful and equal quantities of a good are consumed, total utility increases but at a DIMINISHING RATE (i.e. MARGINAL UTILITY is FALLING – and can eventually become NEGATIVE.

Limitations of marginal utility theory 

  1. Unit of measurement – difficult to find an appropriate unit of measurement of utility.
  2. Habit and impulse – consumer spending on a particular product maybe habit forming or on impulse and therefore does not consider the marginal utility
  3. Enjoyment may increase as consumption increases – in some case utility may increase from further purchases of an item. A collector of memorabilia may obtain greater satisfaction from consuming an additional item – collecting a set of stamps etc
  4. Quality and consistency of successive units of a good – there is the assumption that all goods are homogenous but if successive can of soft drink are not the same then the marginal utility may change and be more or less than the previous one
  5. Other things remain constant – assumes that all factors affecting individuals’ satisfaction remain the same. However over time there maybe changes in income and the quality of other products as well as development of new products.
Categories: Micro Tags:

AS & A2 Revision – How PED varies along a demand curve

September 21, 2017 Leave a comment

Been doing some more revision sessions on CIE AS economics and went through how the elasticity of demand varies along a demand curve. Notice in Case A that the fall in price from Pa to Pb causes the the total revenue to increase therefore it is elastic – the blue area (-) is less than the orange area (+). In Case B the opposite applies – as the price decreases from Pa to Pb the total revenue decreases therefore it is inelastic – the blue area (-) is greater than the orange area (+). In Case C the drop in price causes the same proportionate change in quantity demanded, therefore there is no change in total revenue – it is unitary elasticity. Remember where MR = 0 – PED = 1 on the demand curve (AR curve).

The Multiplier explained

September 19, 2017 Leave a comment

An initial change in AE can have a greater final impact on equilibrium national income. This is known as the multiplier effect and it comes about because injections of demand into the circular flow of income stimulate further rounds of spending.

Multiplier Process

Consider a $300 million increase in business capital investment. This will set off a chain reaction of increases in expenditures. Firms who produce the capital goods that are ultimately purchased will experience an increase in their incomes. If they in turn, collectively spend about 3/5 of that additional income, then $180m will be added to the incomes of others. At this point, total income has grown by ($300m + (0.6 x $300m). The sum will continue to increase as the producers of the additional goods and services realize an increase in their

incomes, of which they in turn spend 60% on even more goods and services. The increase in total income will then be ($300m + (0.6 x $300m) + (0.6 x $180m). The process can continue indefinitely. But each time, the additional rise in spending and income is a fraction of the previous addition to the circular flow.

The value of the multiplier can be found by the equation ­1 ÷ (1-MPC)

You can also use the following formula which represents a four sector economy


MPS = Marginal propensity to save

MRT = Marginal rate of tax

MPM = Marginal propensity to import

MPC = Marginal Propensity to Consume (of additional income how much of it spent)

e.g. $1m initial spending; MPC=.8

=> income generated = 1/(1-.8) = 1/.2 = 5

=   $5m

=> $4m extra spending ($1m initial, $4m extra spending, $5m total)

Use different equations depending on the information given.

e.g.: a) if the MPC is 0.5 – 50% of the income will be spent, 50% will be saved.

then MPS is 0.5 then the multiplier is 2 = 1/0.5 = 2

b) if the MPC is 0.8 – 80% of the income will be spent then MPS is 0.2 then the multiplier is 1/0.2 = 5

c) if the MPC is 0.9 – 90% of the income will be spent then MPS is 0.1 then the multiplier is 1/0.1 = 10

What is the effect of MPT – the marginal propensity to tax or t.

  • greater MPT would lead to less income being spent in the economy

Below is a very informative mind map that I copied from an old textbook.


Categories: Growth Tags:
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