Below is a useful graph from ANZ Bank which looks at the breakdown of components that make up GDP in New Zealand. The GDP of a country is made up of four things: C+I+G+(X-M).
- C = Private Consumption
- I = Business Investment
- G = Government Consumption
- (X-M) = Net Exports
Notice the movement in GDP over the years with the GFC in 2008 where exports revenue brought economic growth into positive territory. However up to 2020 it was private consumption that was the most prevalent with investment. COVID-19 saw a significant downturn with consumption and investment again helping GDP. Overall, domestic demand is set to get smaller, but the exports services such as education and tourism and less demand for imports should counterbalance the lack of domestic demand – see the graph. But the RBNZ has signaled that in order to get inflation down they need the domestic economy to experience a recession (two consecutive quarters of negative GDP) with private consumption falling significantly.
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